Santa Barabara

 

 

Santa BarbaraSpanish: [ˈsanta ˈbaɾβaɾa]) is a city in the US state of California. It is the county seat of Santa Barbara County, California, located in Southern California. Situated on a south-facing section of coastline, the longest such section on the West Coast of the United States, the city lies between the steeply rising Santa Ynez Mountains and the Pacific Ocean. Santa Barbara’s climate is often described asMediterranean, and the city has been promoted as the “American Riviera”.[3] As of the census of 2010, the city had a population of 88,410, a loss of 1,190 from the previous census, making it the second largest city in the county after Santa Maria[4] while the contiguous urban area, which includes the cities of Goleta and Carpinteria, along with the unincorporated regions of Isla VistaMontecitoMission Canyon,Hope RanchSummerland, and others, has an approximate population of 220,000. The population of the entire county in 2010 was 423,895.[5]

In addition to being a popular tourist and resort destination, the city economy includes a large service sector, education, technology, health care, finance, agriculture, manufacturing, and local government. In 2004, the service sector accounted for fully 35% of local employment.[6]Education in particular is well represented, with five institutions of higher learning on the south coast (the University of California, Santa BarbaraSanta Barbara City CollegeWestmont CollegeAntioch University, and the Brooks Institute of Photography). The Santa Barbara Airport serves the city, as does AmtrakU.S. Highway 101 connects the Santa Barbara area with Los Angeles to the southeast and San Francisco to the northwest. Behind the city, in and beyond the Santa Ynez Mountains, is the Los Padres National Forest, which contains

History

Evidence of human habitation of the area begins at least 13,000 years ago. Evidence for a Paleoindian presence includes a fluted Clovis-like point found in the 1980s along the western Santa Barbara County coast, as well as the remains of Arlington Springs Man, found on Santa Rosa Island in the 1960s. Approximately 8,000 to 10,000 Chumash lived on the south coast of Santa Barbara County when Portuguese explorer João Cabrilho sailed through the Santa Barbara Channel in 1542, anchoring briefly in the area.

Five villages flourished in what is today Santa Barbara:

  1. Mispu (now occupied by the City College);
  2. Syukhtun, chief Yanonalit’s large village between Bath and Chapala streets (later called “El Baño”, site of El Baño pool);
  3. Amolomol at the mouth of Mission Creek;
  4. and Swetete, above the present bird refuge.[7]

In 1602 Sebastián Vizcaíno gave the name “Santa Barbara” to the region in gratitude for having survived a violent storm in the Channel on December 3, the eve of the feast day of that saint.

Spanish period

Mission Santa Barbara, known as “the Queen of the Missions,” was founded in 1786.

A land expedition led by Gaspar de Portolà and accompanied by missionary Padre Junípero Serra visited in 1769, but did not stay. The first permanent European residents were Spanish missionaries and soldiers under Felipe de Neve, again accompanied by Serra, who came in 1782 to build thePresidio. They were sent both to fortify the region against expansion by other powers such as England and Russia, and to convert the natives to Christianity. Many of the Spaniards brought their families with them, and those formed the nucleus of the small town – at first just a cluster of adobes – that surrounded the Presidio. Padre Junípero Serra died August 28, 1784, over two years before the completion of the Mission. Mission Santa Barbara was dedicated December 4, 1786, the feast day of Saint Barbara.[8] It was dedicated by Padre Fermín de Francisco Lasuén de Arasqueta, who succeeded Padre Serra as the second presidente and founder of the California Franciscan Mission Chain. The Mission fathers began the slow work of converting the native Chumash to Christianity, building a village for them on the Mission grounds. During the following decades, many of the natives died of diseases such as smallpox, against which they had no natural immunity.[9]

The most dramatic event of the Spanish period was the powerful 1812 earthquake, and tsunami, with an estimated magnitude of 7.1, which destroyed the Mission as well as the rest of the town; water reached as high as present-day Anapamu street, and carried a ship half a mile up Refugio Canyon.[10][11] Following the earthquake, the Mission fathers chose to rebuild in a grander manner, and it is this construction that survives to the present day, the best-preserved of the California Missions.

The Spanish period ended in 1822 with the end of the Mexican War of Independence, which terminated 300 years of colonial rule. The flag of Mexico went up the flagpole at the Presidio, but only for 24 years.

Mexican and Rancho period

After the forced secularization of the Missions in 1833, successive Mexican Governors distributed the large land tracts formerly held by the Franciscan Order to various families in order to reward service or build alliances. These land grants to local notable families mark the beginning of the “Rancho Period” in California and Santa Barbara history. The population remained sparse, with enormous cattle operations run by wealthy families. It was during this period that Richard Henry Dana, Jr. first visited Santa Barbara and wrote about the culture and people of Santa Barbara in his book Two Years Before the Mast.

Mural Room (formerly Board of Supervisors’ Hearing Room) within the Santa Barbara County Courthouse. Wall murals depict the history of Santa Barbara. The room is used occasionally as a courtroom.

Santa Barbara fell bloodlessly to a battalion of American soldiers under John C. Frémont on December 27, 1846, during the Mexican–American War, and after the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848 it became part of the expanding United States.

Middle and late 19th century

State Street in the 1880s looking north from Canon Perdido Street

Change came quickly after Santa Barbara’s acquisition by the United States. The population doubled between 1850 and 1860. In 1851, land surveyor Salisbury Haley designed the street grid, famously botching the block measurements, misaligning the streets, thereby creating doglegs at certain intersections.[12] Wood construction replaced adobe as American settlers moved in; during the Gold Rush years and following, the town became a haven for bandits and gamblers, and a dangerous and lawless place. Charismatic gambler and highwayman Jack Powers had virtual control of the town in the early 1850s, until driven out by a posse organized in San Luis Obispo. English gradually supplanted Spanish as the language of daily life, becoming the language of official record in 1870.[13] The first newspaper, the Santa Barbara Gazette, was founded in 1855.[14]

While the Civil War had little effect on Santa Barbara, the disastrous drought of 1863 ended the Rancho Period, as most of the cattle died and ranchos were broken up and sold. The building of Stearns Wharf in 1872 enhanced Santa Barbara’s commercial and tourist accessibility; previously goods and visitors had to transfer from steamboats to smaller craft to row ashore. During the 1870s, writer Charles Nordhoff promoted the town as a health resort and destination for well-to-do travelers from other parts of the U.S.; many of them came, and many stayed. The luxurious Arlington Hotel dated from this period. In 1887 the railroad finally went through to Los Angeles, and in 1901 to San Francisco: Santa Barbara was now easily accessible by land and by sea, and subsequent development was brisk.[15]

Peter J. Barber, an architect, designed many Late Victorian style residences, and served twice as mayor, in 1880 and again in 1890.

Early 20th century to World War II

Just before the turn of the 20th century, oil was discovered at the Summerland Oil Field, and the region along the beach east of Santa Barbara sprouted numerous oil derricks and piers for drilling offshore. This was the first offshore oil development in the world; oil drilling offshore would become a contentious practice in the Santa Barbara area, which continues to the present day.[16]

Santa Barbara housed the world’s largest movie studio during the era of silent film. Flying A Studios, a division of the American Film Manufacturing Company, operated on two city blocks centered at State and Mission between 1910 and 1922, with the industry shutting down locally and moving to Hollywood once it outgrew the area, needing the resources of a larger city. Flying A and the other smaller local studios produced approximately 1,200 films during their tenure in Santa Barbara, of which approximately 100 survive.[17][18][19]

During this period, the Loughead Aircraft Company was established on lower State Street, and regularly tested seaplanes off of East Beach. This was the genesis of what would later becomeLockheed.

The new Santa Barbara County Courthouse was dedicated on August 14, 1929.

The earthquake of June 29, 1925, the first destructive earthquake in California since the 1906 San Francisco quake, destroyed much of Santa Barbara and killed 13 or 14 people. The low death toll is attributed to the early hour (6:23 a.m., before most people were out on the streets, vulnerable to falling masonry). While this quake, like the one in 1812, was centered in the Santa Barbara Channel, it caused no tsunami, and most of the damage was caused by two onshore aftershocks. It came at an opportune time for rebuilding, since a movement for architectural reform and unification around aSpanish Colonial style was already underway. Under the leadership of Pearl Chase, many of the city’s famous buildings rose as part of the rebuilding process, including the Santa Barbara County Courthouse, sometimes praised as the “most beautiful public building in the United States.”

During World War II, Santa Barbara was home to Marine Corps Air Station Santa BarbaraNaval Reserve Center Santa Barbara at the harbor; was near to the Army’s Camp Cook, present-day Vandenberg Air Force Base; and contained a hospital for treating servicemen wounded in the Pacific Theatre. On February 23, 1942, not long after the outbreak of war in the Pacific, the Japanese submarine I-17 surfaced offshore and lobbed 16 shells at theEllwood Oil Field, about 10 miles (16 km) west of Santa Barbara, in the first wartime attack by an enemy power on the U.S. mainland since the War of 1812. Although the shelling was inaccurate and only caused about $500 damage to a catwalk, panic was immediate. Many Santa Barbara residents fled, and land values plummeted to historic lows.

After World War II

After the war many of the servicemen who had seen Santa Barbara returned to stay. The population surged by 10,000 people between the end of the war and 1950. This burst of growth had dramatic consequences for the local economy and infrastructure. Highway 101 was built through town during this period, and newly built Lake Cachuma began supplying water via a tunnel dug through the mountains between 1950 and 1956.[20]

Local relations with the oil industry gradually soured through the period. Production at Summerland had ended, Elwood was winding down, and to find new fields oil companies carried out seismic exploration of the Channel using explosives, a controversial practice that local fishermen claimed harmed their catch. The culminating disaster, and one of the formative events in the modern environmental movement, was the blowout at Union Oil’s Platform A on the Dos Cuadras Field, about eight miles (13 km) southeast of Santa Barbara in the Santa Barbara Channel, on January 28, 1969. Approximately 100,000 barrels (16,000 m3) of oil surged out of a huge undersea break, fouling hundreds of square miles of ocean and all the coastline from Ventura to Goleta, as well north facing beaches on the Channel Islands. Two legislative consequences of the spill in the next year were the passages of the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) and the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA); locally, outraged citizens formed GOO (Get Oil Out).[21] Santa Barbara’s business community strove to attract development until the surge in the anti-growth movement in the 1970s. Many “clean” industries, especially aerospace firms such as Raytheon and Delco Electronics, moved to town in the 1950s and 1960s, bringing employees from other parts of the U.S. UCSB itself became a major employer.[21] In 1975, the city passed an ordinance restricting growth to a maximum of 85,000 residents, through zoning. Growth in the adjacent Goleta Valley could be shut down by denying water meters to developers seeking permits. As a result of these changes, growth slowed down, but prices rose sharply.[22][23]

When voters approved connection to State water supplies in 1991, parts of the city, especially outlying areas, resumed growth, but more slowly than during the boom period of the 1950s and 1960s. While the slower growth preserved the quality of life for most residents and prevented the urban sprawl notorious in the Los Angeles basin, housing in the Santa Barbara area was in short supply, and prices soared: in 2006, only six percent of residents could afford a median-value house. As a result, many people who work in Santa Barbara commute from adjacent, more affordable areas, such as Santa Maria, Lompoc, and Ventura. The resultant traffic on incoming arteries, in particular the stretch of Highway 101 between Ventura and Santa Barbara, is another problem being addressed by long-range planners.[24]

Notable wildfires

Several destructive fires affected Santa Barbara during this time: the 1964 Coyote Fire, which burned 67,000 acres (270 km2) of backcountry along with 106 homes; the smaller, but quickly moving, Sycamore Fire in 1977, which burned 200 homes; the disastrous 1990 Painted Cave Fire, which incinerated over 500 homes in only several hours, during an intense Sundowner windevent; the November 2008 Tea Fire, which destroyed 210 homes in the foothills of Santa Barbara and Montecito; and the 2009 Jesusita Fire that burned 8,733 acres (35.34 km2) and destroyed 160 homes above the San Roque region of Santa Barbara.[25][26]

Geography

Street scene in Santa Barbara

Santa Barbara is located about 90 miles (145 km) WNW of Los Angeles, along the Pacific coast. This stretch of coast along southern Santa Barbara County is often referred to as the “American Riviera” because of its geography and similar climate to that of the French and Italian Rivieras.[3] The Santa Ynez Mountains, an east–west trending range, rise dramatically behind the city, with several peaks exceeding 4,000 feet (1,200 m). Covered withchaparral and with sandstone outcrops, they make a famously scenic backdrop to the town. Sometimes, perhaps once every three years, snow falls on the mountains, but it rarely stays for more than a few days. Nearer to town, and directly east and adjacent to Mission Santa Barbara, is a hill known locally as the “Riviera,” traversed by “Alameda Padre Serra” (shortened APS), “Father Serra’s pathway.” The hillside, made accessible by the advent of the automobile early in the 20th century, is now built with relatively expensive homes. A spectacularly beautiful area looking south toward the Pacific and the Channel Islands and having sunrise to sunset views, Santa Barbara became the winter destination for the titans of post-Civil War America. Private railroad cars clustered on the sidings at Santa Barbara. The Potter Hotel overlooking Santa Barbara’s West Beach was a world renowned resort. Owners of industry visited Santa Barbara and chose Santa Barbara hillside locations for their grand estates. Others preferred the beach and built palatially there, from Sandyland Cove, Padaro Lane, the city beaches, and west to what is now Goleta.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 42.0 square miles (108.8 km2), of which 19.5 square miles (51 km2) of it is land and 22.5 square miles (58 km2) of it (53.61%) is water. The high official figures for water is due to the extension of the city limit into the ocean, including a strip of city reaching out into the sea and inland again to keep the Santa Barbara Airport (SBA) within the city boundary.

The architectural image of Santa Barbara is the Spanish Colonial Revival style of architecture adopted by city leaders after the 1925 earthquake destroyed much of the downtown commercial district. The residential architecture of Santa Barbara is predominantly California bungalows built in the early decades of the 20th century, with many Victorian homes adorning the “Upper East” and Spanish style homes designed by well-known California architects in Santa Barbara and on estates in Montecito and Hope Ranch. The city has passed ordinances against billboards and regulates outdoor advertising, which is not viewed favorably among all businesses or corporations, but has kept the city relatively free of advertising.

Climate

Santa Barbara experiences a warm-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen: Csb) characteristic of coastal California. Because the city lies along the ocean, onshore breezes moderate temperatures resulting in warmer winters and cooler summers compared with places farther inland. In the winter, storms reach California bringing some much needed rainfall. Locally the Santa Ynez mountains create an upslope flow causing higher rainfall than other coastal areas. Summers in Southern California are mostly rainless due to the presence of a high-pressure area over the eastern Pacific. In the fall, downslope winds, locally called “Sundowners”, can raise temperatures into the high 90s creating a heat-wave, increasing the chance of brush fires in the foothills north of the city. Rainfall is extremely erratic and in exceptional years like 1940–1941 and 1997–1998 over 40 inches (1.0 m) of rain has fallen in a year,[27] but in dry seasons less than 6 inches (150 mm) is not unheard of. Snow sometimes covers the Santa Ynez Mountains but has not been recorded in the city itself except for a few flakes in 1939.

[hide]Climate data for Santa Barbara, California (1981–2010 Normals)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 89
(32)
89
(32)
96
(36)
101
(38)
101
(38)
103
(39)
108
(42)
99
(37)
105
(41)
103
(39)
97
(36)
92
(33)
108
(42)
Average high °F (°C) 64.7
(18.2)
65.4
(18.6)
66.1
(18.9)
69.0
(20.6)
69.6
(20.9)
71.2
(21.8)
74.7
(23.7)
76.0
(24.4)
75.1
(23.9)
72.8
(22.7)
68.9
(20.5)
64.7
(18.2)
69.9
(21.1)
Average low °F (°C) 46.4
(8)
48.1
(8.9)
49.8
(9.9)
51.8
(11)
54.6
(12.6)
57.5
(14.2)
60.4
(15.8)
60.4
(15.8)
59.6
(15.3)
56.2
(13.4)
50.3
(10.2)
46.7
(8.2)
53.5
(11.9)
Record low °F (°C) 20
(−7)
27
(−3)
30
(−1)
30
(−1)
36
(2)
42
(6)
44
(7)
46
(8)
38
(3)
34
(1)
28
(−2)
25
(−4)
20
(−7)
Rainfall inches (mm) 4.14
(105.2)
4.68
(118.9)
3.59
(91.2)
0.77
(19.6)
0.35
(8.9)
0.09
(2.3)
0.01
(0.3)
0.03
(0.8)
0.29
(7.4)
0.52
(13.2)
1.48
(37.6)
2.63
(66.8)
18.58
(472.2)
Avg. rainy days (≥ 0.01 in) 6.5 6.3 6.5 2.9 1.4 0.9 0.4 0.5 1.2 1.7 3.8 4.9 37
Source: Western Regional Climate Center[28]

Demographics

Historical populations
Census Pop.
1860 2,351
1870 4,255 81.0%
1880 3,460 −18.7%
1890 5,864 69.5%
1900 6,587 12.3%
1910 11,659 77.0%
1920 19,441 66.7%
1930 33,613 72.9%
1940 34,958 4.0%
1950 44,913 28.5%
1960 58,768 30.8%
1970 70,215 19.5%
1980 74,414 6.0%
1990 85,571 15.0%
2000 89,600 4.7%
2010 88,410 −1.3%
Est. 2012 89,639 1.4%
State Census data [1]
2012 estimate

2010

The 2010 United States Census[29] reported that Santa Barbara had a population of 88,410. The population density was 2,106.6 people per square mile (813.4/km²). The racial makeup of Santa Barbara was 66,411 (75.1%) White, 1,420 (1.6%) African American, 892 (1.0%) Native American, 3,062 (3.5%) Asian (1.0% Chinese, 0.6% Filipino, 0.5% Japanese, 0.4% Korean, 0.4% Indian, 0.2% Vietnamese, 0.4% Other), 116 (0.1%) Pacific Islander, 13,032 (14.7%) from other races, and 3,477 (3.9%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 33,591 persons (38.0%).

The Census reported that 86,783 people (98.2% of the population) lived in households, 1,172 (1.3%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 455 (0.5%) were institutionalized.

There were 35,449 households, out of which 8,768 (24.7%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 13,240 (37.3%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 3,454 (9.7%) had a female householder with no husband present, 1,539 (4.3%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 2,420 (6.8%)unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 339 (1.0%) same-sex married couples or partnerships. 11,937 households (33.7%) were made up of individuals and 4,340 (12.2%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45. There were 18,233 families (51.4% of all households); the average family size was 3.13.

The population was spread out with 16,468 people (18.6%) under the age of 18, 10,823 people (12.2%) aged 18 to 24, 26,241 people (29.7%) aged 25 to 44, 22,305 people (25.2%) aged 45 to 64, and 12,573 people (14.2%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36.8 years. For every 100 females there were 98.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.7 males.

There were 37,820 housing units at an average density of 901.2 per square mile (347.9/km²), of which 13,784 (38.9%) were owner-occupied, and 21,665 (61.1%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.3%; the rental vacancy rate was 4.1%. 34,056 people (38.5% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 52,727 people (59.6%) lived in rental housing units.

2000

As of the census[30] of 2000, there were 92,325 people*, 35,605 households, and 18,941 families residing in the city. The population density was 4,865.3 people per square mile (1,878.1/km²). There were 37,076 housing units at an average density of 1,953.8 per square mile (754.2/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 74.0%White, 1.8% African American, 1.1% Native American, 2.8% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 16.4% from other races, and 3.9% from two or more races. People ofHispanic or Latino background, of any race, were 35.0% of the population. (*This number was revised to 89,600 when it was discovered that a dormitory population outside the city was erroneously included in the 92,325 figure.[citation needed])

There were 35,605 households out of which 24.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.8% were married couples living together, 9.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 46.8% were non-families. 32.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.17.

In the city, the population was spread out, with 19.8% under the age of 18, 13.8% from 18 to 24, 32.3% from 25 to 44, 20.4% from 45 to 64, and 13.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 97.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.0 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $47,498, and the median income for a family was $57,880. Males had a median income of $37,116 versus $31,911 for females. The per capita income for the city was $26,466. About 7.7% of families and 13.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.8% of those under age 18 and 7.4% of those age 65 or over. If one compares the per capita income to the actual cost of living, the number of people living below the poverty line is considerably higher.

 

Source: Wikipedia